The term comes from the word Cava employee with whom the caves are called traditionally made. Cava is an exception in terms of the words "Appellation of Origin" on their labels, as they are not produced in a specific geographical area. The heart of the production of cava is located in the town of Sant Sadurní d'Anoia (Barcelona), which produces and sells champagne from the late nineteenth century. But at present, although this area concentrates 85% of the production, cultivation area permitted includes 160 municipalities in the provinces of Alava, Barcelona, Badajoz, Girona, Navarra, La Rioja, Tarragona, Valencia, Zaragoza, which together form the production area by cava. Just i Lluís Villanueva (1834-1880), a winemaker of Madrid, was the creator of the main foundations on which to develop different kinds of quality sparkling wines in the Laboratori de l'Institut de Sant Isidre Agricola, in Barcelona. He experimented with Noiry Pinot Chardonnay from France's Champagne region in northern France as well as other native varieties. Josep Raventos i Fatjó was the first to make the necessary investments to develop, in 1872, a non-traditional Cava. Since 1877, the Spanish xampán as it was then called, replaced the French champagne at the Spanish court. In 1883 it was agreed not to use the term began calling xampán and sparkling wine. The main grape varieties with which it is made are: Macabeo, Xarello, Parellada, and in recent years a notable increase in the planting of Chardonnay, Malvasia, Pinot Noir, Grenache, Mourvèdre, Trepat, authorized the latter for pink champagne. The process begins with an early harvest and goes through different phases: - Pressing: by which gently run juice extracted from each of the varieties. - Winemaking: that begins with the fermentation of each variety separately with temperature control, adding yeast. And ends with the proportion of each variety that will form the blend. - Run: or filled with wine bottle base and a mixture of yeast and sugar. - Rima: placing the bottles horizontally in underground cellars, where they rest for a minimum period of 9 months. Removed: ⅛ movements to each of the bottles placed on desks, to remove sediment produced in the second fermentation. - Disgorging: extraction of sediments from the bottle neck. - Capping: Restoring volume of fluid lost in shipping disgorging liquor (wine mixture, yeast and sugar). - Labeling: placement of the capsule and labels. As for Champagne, each producer makes a particular cuvée (blend of grapes) from vineyards in the area authorized by the Regulatory Board. This cuvee can belong to any of the seven types of cava according to their sugar content Brut Nature: up to 3 g / l of added sugars. Extra Brut: up to 6 g / l of added sugars. Brut: up to 12 g / l of added sugars. Extra Dry: between 12 and 17 g / l of added sugars. Dry: between 17 and 32 g / l of added sugars. Semi Dry: 32 to 50 g / l of added sugars. Sweet: more than 50 g / l of added sugars. Cava is second best-selling sparkling wine in the world, behind the champagne.